Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM): an update based on evidence

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is generally defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy (American Diabetes Association). Therefore, GDM does not include the situation of those women who previously suffer from diabetes before becoming pregnant.

GDM is usually highlighted from the equator and towards the end of the gestation period. Run with resistance to insulin, glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. This situation of hyperglycemia also affects the development of the fetus in the uterus, being one of the consequences the birth of babies significantly greater and of greater weight than average. Known as macrosomia: birth weight greater than 4 kg, or above 90th percentile in height-for-age tables.

Some women are more likely than other to get GDM we shall consider the NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) risk factors, being at higher risk if any of the following apply :

  • Previous gestational diabetes
  • Previous macrosomia baby weighing 4.5 kg or above
  • BMI above 30 kg/m2
  • Family history of diabetes (first degree relative with diabetes)
  • Maternal age (>35 years old are at greater risk)

Not forgetting the existence of new genetic test that can help us to know the genetic risk of GDM such Patia´s GDMpredict.

Test riesgo genético diabetes gestacional